Coins of the Twelve Caesars – JULIUS CAESAR – read online

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THE TWELVE CAESAES (JULIUS TO DOMITIAN) ILLUSTRATED BY READINGS OF 217 OF THEIR COINS AND MEDALS

Twelve Caesars – JULIUS CAESAR COINS

[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome — from B.C. 47 to a.d. 96 — Caius Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44, was the first. The eleven who succeeded him under this title, were Augustus, b.c. 31- ! a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, 37-41; Claudius, 41-54; Nero, 54-68; | Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69; Vespasian, 69-79; Titus, 79-81, and Domitian, 81-96.]

Caius Julius Caesar, the first of this name, and ruler with imperial power from b.c. 47 to 44, was born at Rome on the 12th July. B.c. 100; a. t. c. 654. The ruling Consuls were C. Marius and L. Valerius Flaccus. The “Social War” between Sylla and Marius, then brewing, broke out nine years later. The father of our subject had the same name as his own; he had enjoyed the dignity of praetor, but died when his namesake was 16 years of age. Nineteen years later Julius, being then curule aedile, exhibited games in honor of his father. His mother, Aurelia, died a.d. 54, while her son was in Gaul. She had two daughters. Aurelia gave much attention to the education and interests of Julius, and appears to have lived in his house until her death. To compress even a succinct sketch of a life so celebrated within a single page, is a task of no ordinary difficulty.

Clarum et duraluram cum aeternitate mundi nomen is the expression of the old historian, ” a bright name and one that will endure with the eternity of the world! ” Through his relationship to Marius, husband of his aunt Julia, Julius was made flamen dialis at 13 years of age. Sulla, the rival of Marius. formed designs upon Caesar’s life, and only spared him at the intercession of the Vestal Virgins, predicting, however, ” that the boy would some day prove the ruin of those who opposed him.”

He served his first campaigns, B.C. 81, at Mytilene, Asia, and received the civic crown. Upon receiving news of Sulla’s death he returned to Rome. He studied oratory at Rhodes, B.C. 76, under Appoilonius Molo, former teacher of Cicero. He was elected Pontiff B.C. 74. In 73, the year of Julia’s death, he was made quaestor, which was the first step to military promotion, and went to Spain in that capacity. Returning to Rome b.c. 67, he joined the party of Pompey. In the Catilinian Conspiracy of 66 he temporized, and historians do not agree as to the part he took. He entered upon the office of curule aedile b.c. 65.

Two years later he was elected pontifex maximus and praetor. In the Catilinian trials of that year he opposed the execution of the miscreant and advocated life-long imprisonment. In the year 61 he obtained the province of Further Spain, and though for the first time at the head of the army, at once displayed that genius for war which has placed him among the greatest captains of history. Upon his first victory the troops saluted him Imperator and the Senate decreed him a public thanksgiving. Returning to Rome the next year, he was elected Consul for the first time, and entered upon it b.c. 59. Then he formed, with Pompey and M. Crassus, the first triumvirate, which, though but a private agreement for personal benefits, became a model for future and most dangerous combinations under the name.

He set out upon his Gallic campaigns bo. 58, and for nine years was almost incessantly employed in march, fortification or battle. His genius triumphed over every obstacle. More than a million of the Gauls and Germans perished in the strife, and as many more were made prisoners. War was declared between Pompey and Caesar early b.c. 49. when Caesar crossed the Rubicon and advanced upon Rome. Pompey fled to Greece. In April Caesar began a campaign in Spain, where Pompey had 6even legions, gained every battle and in forty days returned to Rome, having in his absence been appointed Dictator.

This supreme office, bowever, he voluntarily laid down after the brief term of eleven days. In January 48 he crossed with his army into Greece and upon the plains of Pharsalia, on the 9th August, gave Pompey a total defeat. He fled to Egypt, pursued by Caesar, but was murdered before his enemy arrived. This battle decided the fate of Rome. The conquering general was made Dictator the second time and Consul for the term of five years. Before returning, Caesar operated against his opponents for more than twelve months, in Egypt and Pontus. He then set out to carry the war into Africa, against Scipio and Cato, who had large forces there. The battle of Thapsus, April 6, B.C. 46, was another Pharsalia, and Caesar was now undisputed master of the Roman world. Returning to Rome, the Senate decreed a public thanksgiving of forty days, appointed him Dictator for ten years, and Censor, under the title of praefectus morum, for three years.

He enjoyed four magnificent triumphs, in which the games of the circus and amphitheater were celebrated with unparalleled splendor. Behind his conquering chariot the boy Augustus, afterward Emperor, was permitted to ride. Caesar now began those acts which so distinguish him as a civil ruler. In his character of pontifex maximus he reformed the calendar, being personally familiar with astronomy as then understood. This he did by adding 90 days to the year and so adapting the civic to the solar calendar. The Roman Senate from this period crouched at Caesar’s feet. They authorized him to wear upon all occasions a triumphal robe; gave him the title of Pater Patriae, or as some read it, Parens Patriae, ” father of the country; ” placed his statues in all the temples; named the mouth Quintilis ‘July ” in his honor, and apotheosized or raised him while yet living to the rank of the god. He was made Consul for ten years; his person was declared sacrvsancti (sacred, inviolable); a guard of senators and knights was appointed to protect his person, and the whole Senate took an oath ‘ to watch over his safety.” He was made dictator and praefectus morum for life; finally his portrait was ordered to be placed upon the national coinage, the first time such an honor was accorded to any one. All had now been yielded to this successful soldier and statesman save the right to nominate his successor. He had used his power mainly for the good of his country. His mercy was equal to his justice.

He began to frame digests of the laws, to drain marshes, enlarge harbors, establish public libraries, excavate canals. But he felt that this strong fabric of government would fall to pieces at his death and chaos come again. On the 15th February, B.C. 44, therefore, a proposal was made to the people by Mark Antony to offer him the diadem, that so the succession might be secured. Seeing that it was not popular, Caesar declined it for the time, intending, doubtless, to have it renewed on a fitting season. But the life of this great scholar, orator, statesman, soldier, was drawing to a close. A conspiracy, comprising more than sixty prominent persons, had been formed, and on the 15th March, b.c 44, Caesar was assassinated in the Senate-house. Caesar was four limes married, viz : First, to Cossutia, whom he divorced b.c. 83. Second, to Cornelia, daughter of L. Cinna, who died b.c. 68. Third, to Pompeia, in 67. This lady proving unfaithful, he divorced her b.c. 60. Fourth, to Calpurnia, about b.c. 59, who survived him. But from none of them had he any children.

The name and apparatus of Augur occur frequently in Caesar’s coins, more sparsely in those of his successors. Any soothsayer or diviner was styled an Augur, as Apollo, for instance, the god of soothsaying. But the numismatic use of the term is limited to the chief of the Augural College, a body of priests supported by the public (Augures publici). These were of the greatest authority in the Roman State, because nothing of importance was done, respecting the public, either at home or abroad, in peace or at war, without consulting them. They professed to foretell future events chiefly from the flight, chirping or feeding of birds, and from the appearances of the heavens. In the time of Sulla (about b.c. 80) their number was fifteen. Their chief was termed Magister Collegii, or Augur Maximus.

Being intrusted with the secrets of the Empire, they could not be removed from office, whatever crime they committed. They were first formed into a college by Numa, about b.c. 700. The badges of the Augurs, as we see them upon the coins, were as follows: 1. The trabea, a sort of robe, striped with purple. 2. A cap of a conical shape, like that worn by the priests (pontiflces). 3. The lituus, or crooked staff. This waB carried in the right hand to mark out the quarters of the heavens. This object appears oftenest upon coins. This class of Augurs continued in existence even down to the time of Theodosius the Great, a.d. 379. When an Augur was about to make observations he selected the darkest hour of night (” a little before day “) and chose an elevated place (called arax vel templum) where the view was open on all sides.

Then, offering sacrifices and uttering a solemn prayer, he sat down with his face to the east, and veiled his head. In the coins of Caesar, as of future Emperor6, this veil is seen. Then with his lituus, he drew an imaginary line dividing the heavens from east to west and selected a spot in the celestial concave, to which his observations were limited. This portion he divided into four part6. Next he turned to the south and crossed the heavens with the lituus, and, all this being accomplished, drew his conclusions from the appearance above him. Imagine such a man as Caesar going through this performance!

 

 

WHAT THE COINS TEACH CONCERNING JULIUS CAESAR

Of nineteen coins, gold, silver and bronze, of Julius Caesar, from the illustrations on the fourth page. [The student will observe in these Readings: First, that the size of a Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture;

Second, that each Metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,—A V (aurum) standing for gold; A R (argentttm) for silver; A E (aes) for copper, bronze or brass, words indiscriminately used in Numismatics.

Third, that there are few punctuation points on Coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facilitate Readings.

Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and

Fifth, that these Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as Experts.

The varied and amazing incidents in the earlier life of Caesar—his relationship to the great Commoner Marius; his far-famed campaigns in the North; his advents, allocutions, victories and triumphs; also the brilliant ! facts of his literary career—all which a century later would afford subjects I for the grandest series of coins and medals, and, in the numismatic records | of a Hadrian, materials for thousands of richest groupings on coin-dies, — are wanting to the numismata of Julius Caesar. What is interesting in his money is connected with the last two or three years of his life. Yet, even with this drawback, his coins are rich in suggestive thought, and embody important facts in his career.

No. 1. AE. A medallion, struck in the Central Mint, at Rome, which occupied the temple of Juno Moneta and neighboring buildings. This institution employed so many moneycrs and assistants that, two centuries later, in the reign of Aurelian (a.d. 270-275), when the workmen were suspected of extensive frauds, a formidable disturbance arose among them, and, to escape punishment, they excited the multitude to insurrection. Seven thousind soldiers and forty thousand employes of the mint were slain in quelling this ” hard-money riot.” The medallion before us was not struck in the life-time of its subject. His sudden ” taking off ” closed the great series of coins and medals in course of preparation. It was issued by his adopted son and successor, Augustus, as the portraits show. The reader will observe that to give symmetry 10 the page of engravings, the two sides of the medallion are separated. Reverse. Head of Augustus Caesar to the right. Not laureated. Beardless. In the style of an antique bust. Hair curly. Nose prominent. Showing that a cabinet of ancient coins is a good source of classic models for painter and sculptor. The reader will recall 6uch faces as this in hi6 own circle of acquaintance. Legend (abbreviated): CAESAR DIVI F; (supplied) — Caesaris Divi Filius; “the son of the deified Caesar.” The Senate bestowed this title “deified” upon Julius Caesar before his death; and as Augustus was adopted by him in his will, he calls himself, ” son of the deified Caesar! ” Obverse. Laureate head of Julius Caesar to the right. Features wrinkled and careworn. Beardless (he never wore a beard). Inscription: DIVOS IVLIVS—”The Deified Julius.” This substitution of the letter o for u (Divos for Dims) was not unusual with the Romans, although sufficiently perplexing to the reader. As Julius Caesar held the office of High Priest (Pontifex MaxUnus) and Chief Augur of the nation, it was but an easy step to pronounce him a god, and so give him a seat in the Pantheon while yet alive.

No. 2, AE. A Greek imperial. It more strictly belongs to the scries of A ugustus, but is inserted here that we may present in one group the three friends and successors of Julius Cae6ar. Obverse. The jugated heads of the triumvirs,—Augustus, Mark Antony and Lepidus,— to the right. No inscription. The portraits are sharp cut as photographs, and undoubted likenesses. This five years’ triumvirate was effected in the autumn of B.C. 43, eighteen months after the death of Julius Caesar. It was formed R. P. C. ” for constituting the Republic.” Terminating December 31, b.c 33, it was renewed for a second term of five years; but ere its close, an irreconcilable quarrel between Augustus and Antony broke it up, and- a.d. 31 the Roman world passed into the hands of Augustus. Lepidus lived in a retired situation, holding only the office of Pontifex Maximus until his death, B.C. 13. Reverse. The image of Diana of Ephesus, full front. Legend abraded, and not readable. The word APXIEP for APXIEPEOE is “of the Chief Priest,” (in the genitive case,) and the missing letters will supply the name of this High Priest, and his locality, whenever a duplicate of this rare and interesting coin shall be yielded up from the rich hoards concealed by mother earth. This form of Diana is peculiarly Ephesian, as the reader will perceive by comparing it with other Dianas. . The temple of Diana at Rome stood on the Aventine Hill, but the emblems of her worship were very different from those of this many-breasted creature, hung round with the heads of beasts, that signalized the great temple of Diana at Ephesus. We recall from Acts xix the remarks of the town clerk concerning this: ” What man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshiper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter?” This coin probably acknowledges some costly gift or valued political favor granted by the Triumvirate to the far-famed city and temple of Diana.

No. 3, AR. Obverse. Bald head of Caesar to the right. Not laureate. Behind the neck the lituus. Inscription (supplied): Caesar, Consul 4; “Caesar 4th time Consul.” These consulate data afford unquestioned points all through our coin series that give the exact, year in which the monument was coined. Caesar was made consul for the first time B.C. 60, and the fourth time, b.c 45, beginning with New Tear’s day. He was enjoying his fifth term when he was assassinated. Reverse. A crocodile to the right, the characteristic emblem of Egypt, and the river, of which, according to Herodotus, “Egypt is the gift.” Legend: Aegupto Capta —” Egypt subdued.” Other “Conquest Coins” will be seen iu our series. The subjugation of Egypt by Caesar was effected following the battle of Pharsalia, August 9, B.C. 48.

No. 4, AE. Struck at Berytus in Syria. Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to the right. Features, etc., as in preceding. Behind the neck is a counter-mark, with C. C. for Cains Caesar, and an overflowing cornucopiae, the emblem of agricultural abundance. Reverse. A plowman urging a yoke of cattle to the right. This is the common emblem of the establishment of a Roman colony. Legend (abbreviated): COL IVL BER; (supplied) — Colonia Julia Berytus, “The Julian Colony or Berytus.” In the exergue the letters ex s. c. are for Ex Senatus Consulto, ” by decree of the Senate,” denoting that this coin was struck by special edict of that body to commemorate the planting of the colony named. It is usually written S. C. Berytus, now Beyrout. and the seat of one of the most interesting missionary stations of the present day, was an ancient town of Phoenicia, famous in the sixth century for its law college, and renowned as the locality of the fable of St. George and the Dragon, now stamped on some of the coinage of Great Britain.

No. 5, AE. Obverse. The head of the goddess Venus to the right. Hair in curls, with long ringlets down the neck. No inscription. Letter S behind the neck, also in the Reverse, we cannot explain, although it is found in coins of other cities. Reverse. Two cornucopiae fastened at the stems, and overflowing with fruits and foliage. Inscription: VALENTIA. Valentia was a city in Spain, near Saguntum, originally founded by Junius Brutus. It was destroyed by Pompey, and styled by Pliny, long* afterward a colony. The symbol of the single or double cornucopiae always represents a country abounding in the fruits of the earth.

No. 6, AE. A Greek Imperial. This is the Reverse face of No. 9. Its place in a historical series is with Mark Antony. Reverse. Double cornucopiae overflowing with fruits and foliage. Inscription: KAEOITATPA5 BA2IAI22H2 —”Of Queen Cleopatra.” Here is a genuine portrait of one of the most famous (and infamous) women named in history. The reader will refer to his Classical Dictionary to see how it is connected by turns with Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Augustus. That Cleopatra was a woman of attractive features is evident from all the portraits upon coins and busts.

No. 7, AE. A colony-coin of Corinth. Obverse. Head of Venus to the right. No inscription. Reverse. Figure of a man seated, to the right. In his right hand a wand raised. His left extended as if speaking. Behind him the wings of Pegasus. Beneath a serpent in coils, to the right. All these objects were sacred to Minerva. The emblem of Corinth was Pegasus, the steed with which Minerva endowed Bellerophon, he having first bridled him. Wherefore he erected a temple at Corinth to that goddess. Inscription (supplied): ” The Julian Colony at Corinth.”

No. 8, AE. A colony-coin of Corinth. Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to the right. Inscription (supplied): ” Praise to Julius, by the Corinthians.” Reverse. Bellerophon mounted upon Pegasus attacking a lion. In the background a stag. Legend (abbreviated): L ATO IVLIO nVIR (supplied): ” By L. Ato Julius the duum-vir.” The duumvir was the officer in charge of the mint. In accordance with the custom of this and the next reign, these moneyers occupied the reverses of coins, with their names and titles.

No. 9, AE. Obverse. Face of Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, to the right, in the habitude of Diana. In the words of Patin, “You see a face destined to inflame emperors and to confuse human affairs. Yet it was not so much her beauty, in which we may not compare her with others; but she conducted herself so that scarcely any one escaped her snares. Even Caesar, of all men born of women, was so captured that, Ptolemy being killed, he divided the kingdom between Cleopatra and her brother.” Her appearance in the habitude of Diana refers to Isis, goddess of Egypt, another form of Diana.

No. 10, AV. Obverse. The image and insignia of Victory. Head to the right, wings affixed to the neck. Inscription (abbreviated): C CAESAR DIC TER; (supplied) Caius Caesar Dictator Tertinra. “The third time Dictator.” Reverse. The pontifical vase. Name of L. Munatius Plancus, the Praefeclus XJrbis. This coin was struck by order of Plancus, to commemorate the victory over Juba king of Africa, for which Caesar was made Dictator for the third time, B.C. 47.

No. 11, AR. Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to the right, with inscription (supplied) Caesar Imperator, ‘ Caesar the Emperor.” Reverse. The Cancelli Comltioram, or latticed gallery in which the popular assemblies were held at Rome. Two logated figures are seen standing, casting votes into urns. The name of L. Mussidius Longus, the quartum-vir, is given. Below, the word CLOACIN, for Cloacina, a term applied to Venus to indicate her origin from the Sabines. Caesar claiming descent from Venus, all allusions upon his coins to that goddess arc complimentary to him. Aeneas, son of Venus and Anchises, is reported as leading a colony to Italy and so founding the Roman empire. In Coin No. 17, eeries of Augustus, is seen a representation of Aeneas bearing his aged father Anchises from the ruins of Troy.

No. 12, AR. Obverse. Laureate and veiled head of Caesar to the right, in the pontifical habit, as denoting his office of Pontifex Maximus. Before him is the liluus. Inscription: Caesar Parens Patriae, “the Father of the Country.” In succeeding reigns the term is usually given “Pater Patriae.” It is often translated ” the Parent and the Prince.”

No. 13, AR. Obverse. Not given here. Has the head of C. Julius Caesar, father of our subject. Reverse. A temple of Venus at Rome, in which Julius Caesar placed the statue of his father. Julius is represented standing in the vestibule of the temple in augural robes, with lituus in right hand. On the left is the altar, before which the Roman people were accustomed for a long time to sacrifice, to make vows, and to settle controversies. Above arc the words Divo Julio, “to the deified Julius,” and a star. The temple has four columns. Legend (supplied): Consul Iterum, et Tertius Design natns. ” The second time Consul, and designated the third.”

No. 14, AR. Obverse. Laureate and veiled head of Caesar to the right. Inscription: “To Caesar, Perpetual Dictator.” Reverse. A female to the left, holding a victoriola in right hand. Left breast bare. The name of P. Servillius Macer is given as the moneyer or duum-vir in charge of the mint. The goddess has, at the end of a long wand, a star.

No. 15, AR. Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to right. Inscription as in No. 11. Augural apparatus as in several preceding coins. Reverse. Figure standing to left, with Victoriola in right hand. Spear held transversely. Left elbow supported on shield which rests on globe. The name of M. Mettius is given as chief of the mint that year. In front of the figure an indistinct object.

No. 16, AR. Obverse. Laureate head of Caesar to right. Inscription: “Caesar Dictator for the fourth time.” Reverse. A biga or two-horse chariot driven by charioteer with javelin and shield. The name, M. Mettius, is seen in the exergue as the moneyer of that year.

No. 17, AR. Struck to commemorate his victories over the Gauls, Germans and other nationB in the campaigns described in his commentaries. The trophy seen in the reverse is the one erected after his victory over Pharnaccs, concerning which Caesar rendered his celebrated report Veni Vidi Vici. For in one day he came to the enemy — saw them — subdued them! Virgil describes this trophy in his lines commencing. “Ingentem quercum,” etc. Obverse. Veiled head of Venus to the right. Behind the head, an object used by the Pontifex. The letters IIT signify secundum tropamm. “the second trophy” of victory erected by Caesar against Mithridates. Reverse. Roman trophy with the word “Caesar” below. A laurel crown elegantly wrought on the left, the wreath of victory.

No. 18, AR. Struck in commemoration of the same victory over Pharnaces. Obverse. Head of Venus to right, with hair elaborately dressed, having an elegant Cupid wrought into the necklace behind. No inscription. The attire of the goddess is fieured here with exquisite art. Reverse. A Roman trophy elaborately constructed. Two captives beneath facing different ways. Word Caesar in exergue. The captives are of each sex in attitudes of profoundost dejection. Asses’ heads above them, no uncommon emblem In the coins, four centuries later we see this idea of captives more largely extended.

No. 19, AR. Obverse. Head of Venus to the right, with hair prettily bound about with ribbon. Reverse. A Roman trophy. Legend (‘supplied), Caesar Imperator, ” Caesar (proclaimed) Emperor.” It was the cu torn of the Legions after a victory, to proclaim their general ” Imperator.” The variety in the three trophies given is striking. Among the denarii of Julius Caesar we also find the following, viz. :

1. A radiated bust of the Sun, the likeness three quarters front, which is uncommon, portraits upon early coins being usually in profile.

2. The full-length figure of Venus Nicephorus to the left, in a graceful, bending attitude, her right hand supported by the usual staff.

3. Hercules holding the triquetra in his hand, his right foot resting on the prow of a vessel. This triquetra (trinacria) is the emblem of Sicily, where this coin was struck.

4. The image of Minerva marching superbly to the left, with helmet, javelin, shield and trophy. A serpent moves with equal speed by her side. (This is a bronze coin.) The majesty of this figure of ” the maiden godd ss” is suggested, doubtless, by Homer. The accompanying serpent denotes Felicity, Vigilance, Concord, Prudence, Health, Power and Victory, according to the relation it bears to the principal figure on the coin. As ajcompanion of Minerva (Pallas) in coins of the Athenians, the serpent implies Providential care {Procidentia).

5. A denarius, struck by the quartum-vir, or mint-master, has on the obverse an excellent laureate bust of Caesar to the right; and on the reverse those symbols of their gods by which the Senate dedicated temples in honor of Caesar. These were the caducaeus, cornucopia, globe, and other objects, grouped in artistic manner.

6. A denarius struck by the Questor of the Casilian Colony, T. S. Graccus, gives upon the obverse the laureate bust of Caesar, with S.C. for Senatus Consulto.—”By Decree of the Senate,”— an expression rarely, if ever, found upon any save bronze coins, after this period.

Upon the reverse are emblems of the establishment of a colony, viz., the Roman plow (type of agriculture), the scepter (type of authority), the standard of the Cohort and the eagle-standard of the Legion. In examining the numerous allusions to military affairs upon coins, we note that a Roman soldier was equally expert as a cavalry-soldier, an infantry-soldier, and a member of the marines. He was trained to cultivate the ground, to throw up fortifications, construct bridges and build ships.

He was practiced in running, leaping, vaulting, wrestling and swimming, either armed or unarmed. He was able to make long and rapid marches four miles to the hour, every soldier carrying sixty pounds weight upon his back. He was expert in tools for field-work. In camp he was coutinually employed, no intervals of idleness, no time for dissipation, being allowed him. His home was the camp; war was his business; military exercises, his amusement; success, his glory. In our coin-sheet of Otho are two large cuts of special interest in this connection. In the coin-sheet of Vitellius is a large bust of one of the greatest masters of war Rome ever produced, Julius Caesar himself; and below, on the same page, the arms, offensive and defensive, with which the world was guided and governed.

The clothing of the soldier was the sogram (mantle, cloak) over which the sword was buckled. That of the general, often seen in our coins, was called the pnludamentvm; it was white, purple or scarlet. The common soldier wore under-garments of cloth, sandals, and, later, caligae. ” If we examine the intellectual character of Julius Caesar we see that he was gifted by nature with the most various talents, and was distinguished by the most extraordinary genius and attainments in the most diversified pursuits. He was at one and the same time a general, a statesman, a lawgiver, a jurist, an orator, a poet, an historian, a philologer, a mathematician and an architect! He was equally fitted to excel in all. and has given proofs that he would have surpassed almost all other men in any subject to which he devoted the energies of bis extraordinary mind. Julius Caesar was the greatest man of antiquity.”—Smith’s Diet, of Greek and Rom. Hist., Myth, and Biog.

The ideal of Caesar, as formed in the mind of the third Napoleon, will not be without interest in this connection. He says: “To establish a durable order of things there wanted a man who, raising himself above vulgar passions, should unite in himself the essential qualities and just ideas of each of his predecessors, avoiding their faults as well as their errors. To the greatness of soul, and love of the people of certain tribunes, it was needful to join the military genius of great generals and the strong sentiments of the Dictator in favor of order and the hierarchy. “The man capable of so lofty a mission already existed; but perhaps, in spite of his name, he might have still remained long unknown if the penetrating eye of Sylla had not discovered him in the midst of the crowd, and, by persecution, pointed him out to public attention. That man was Caesar.”—Napoleon II, Life of Caesar.

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