Coins of the Twelve Caesars – TITUS – read online



Twelve Caesars – TITUS COINS

[Of the twelve Caesars who exercised imperial authority at Rome from B.C. 47 to a.d. 96, Titus, a.d. 70-81, wus the eleventh. The ten who preceded him, under this title were: Julius Caesar, b.c. 47-44; Augustus, b.c. 31-a.d. 14; Tiberius, 14-37; Caligula, a.d. 37-41; Claudius, 41-54; Nero, 54-68; Galba, 68-69; Otho, 69; Vitellius, 69, and Vespasian, 69-19. The one who succeeded him was his brother, Domitian, 81-96.]

Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, eleventh of the Caesars, Emperor of Rome, a.d. 69 to 71, was born at Rome December 30, a.d. 40, about three weeks prior to the murder of Caligula. The reigning Emperor was Caligula. “The mean house with the small chamber ” in whjch this good prince ilrst saw the light, was shown, as an object of popular curiosity, as late as the time of Suetonius, about a.d. 90. His father having precisely the same name, was the tenth of the Roman Emperors, and his immediate predecessor. His mother, Flavia Domitilla, was a lady of good family, and all that is recorded of her is favorable.

His only brother, Domitian, succeeded him as Emperor. From childhood Titus manifested a good disposition. His figure was well modeled, save that his stomach was somewhat protuberant; he was active and expert in all bodily exercises, possessed a great aptitude for learning, was an accomplished musician and a most expert short-hand writer, an accomplishment in which the Romans of that period excelled. The youth of Titus was passed in the imperial household of Claudius, and in the same manner and with the same instructors as Britannicus, then heir-apparent to the throne. Upon the accession of Nero he received similar favors from the new Emperor, and was a guest at Nero’s table when Britannicus drank from the envenomed cup and died. While yet a young man Titus acted as tribunus militum, both in Britain and Germany, and with much credit. Following this he was promoted quaestor. He then applied himself to the labors of the forum.

He was twice married, first to Arricidia, a lady of good family, and upon her death, to Marcia Furnina, a woman of high rank, by whom he had a daughter, Julia Sabina, to whose unhappy fate we refer in our sketch of Domitian. The frequency of divorces among the Romans of the period was so marked that it is useless to inquire why he divorced Marcia after the birth of her daughter. But it was in the Jewish war of a.d. 66 to 70 that Titus acquired his principal renown. Having command of a legion lie was made lieutenantgeneral by his father, Vespasian, and as such was chiefly instrumental in the siege and capture of the cities of Tarichaea and Gamala, described by Josephus. When Galba was proclaimed Emperor, a.d. 68, Titus was sent by his father to pay his respects to the new monarch, and probably to ask for that promotion to which his services entitled him. But arriving at Corinth he learned of the death of Galba and went no further. He returned to Vespasian, who was already dreaming of the higher destiny before him. Titus reconciled Mucianus, governor of Syria, with his father, and thus contributed greatly to the result that followed.

Vespasian was proclaimed Emperor by his soldiers, first at Alexandria, Egypt, July 1, 69, and two days later at the gates of Jerusalem. Titus accompanied his father as far as to Egypt, on the way to Rome, and then returned to Palestine to complete the work in progress there. All writers acknowledge that he displayed the talents of a general with the daring of a soldier. More than once his person was placed in imminent peril by the fury of the Jews, and rarely had the Roman legions encountered a people whose conquest cost them so dearly. September 8, a.d. 70, Jerusalem was taken by storm, and Titus received from his soldiers the title of Imperator. During the next eight months he occupied himself in a conference at Zeugma, on the Euphrates, with the Parthian ambassadors, and in a visit to Egypt, where he assisted at the consecration of the bull Apis at Memphis. On his journey to Italy he had an interview with Apollonius, of Tyana, who gave him excellent counsel. In the Judaean Triumph Titus was associated with his father and with his brother Domitian, the latter riding a horse in the procession.

He also received the title of Caesar, and was associated with Vespasian in the government. They acted together as Censors, and Titus was made Praefectus Pretorio, an office which had hitherto only been held by Roman Knights. Upon the death of Vespasian, June 24, 79, Titus succeeded peaceably to the throne, and has left a record truly enviable. During his brief reign of two years he displayed a sincere desire for the happiness of his people, and did all he could to relieve them in times of distress. Upon one occasion remembering at the close of an evening that he had made no charitable gifts since he arose, he cried out to his friends, “I have lost a day!” Various conspiracies were formed against him, but Titus pardoned the plotters and endeavored to win them to him by kindness.

Even his brother Domitian entertained designs against him, but was forgiven and taken into renewed confidence. He checked all prosecutions for laesa majestas, which, from the time of Tiberius had been a fruitful source of false accusation, and severely punished informers. At the close of 79 Titus repaired one of the great Roman aqueducts. The success of Agricola in Britain justified the Emperor in assuming the title of Imperator for the second time. This year is memorable for the great eruption of Vesuvius, in which the elder Pliny lost his life, and Herculaneum and Pompeii were destroyed. Titus endeavored to repair the losses by sending two consulars with money to restore the ruined cities. He visited in person the site of the catastrophe. While absent a great fire occurred in Rome, destroying the Capitol, the Library of Augustus and other edifices and treasures. To repair and rebuild, the Emperor sold even the decorations of the royal residences.

The eruption of Vesuviu was followed by a terrible pestilence, which called for fresh exertions on the part of the benevolent Emperor. A.D. 80 he completed the Coliseum began by his father; also the “Baths of Titus”; repaired several aqueducts, and paved the road to Rimini. A.D. 81 Agricola was employed in a campaign against the Scots. This amiable monarch died September 13, a.d. 81, in the same villa in which his father had breathed his last but two years before. He was fortyone years of age and had reigned two years two months and twenty days. Whispers were indulged in at the time that his brother Domitian was instrumental iu hastening his end. In the coin-sheet of Caligula, near the lower left-hand corner, will be seen an engraving of the Arch of Titus at Rome, as it appears at the present day. This is the oldest triumphal arch now existing in that city, if we except the doubtful monument of Drusus; and as a proof and an illustration of the most important event in the Jewish History, there is not, perhaps, a more interesting monument of antiquity in the world. It was completed a.d. 80. Trajan erected one a.d. 114, and Constantine a.d. 312, which was made a pattern by the British in building their Marble Arch iu Hyde Park, London.

The view of this monument of Titus corroborates the opinion offered more than once in these sheets, that the Roman government set an extraordinary value upon their conquests in Judaea. Why this was 60 will demand some knowledge of the people and the history of the Jews. It was not that the fanaticism and desperate bravery of the people prolonged the war and cost their conquerors some adverses. This had occurred to even a greater extent in the subjugation of other countries scarcely named upon coins. But here we see the conquest of a small territory, insignificant in wealth, an agricultural and pastoral people, who had never come into competition, either in arts or arms, with Rome; we see their conquests recorded successively upon the coins of the father (Vespasian), who began the war of subjugation; of the son, Titus, who completed it in a manner almost unprecedented in Roman warfare, viz., by the utter destruction of the towns and general deportation of the people; and, finally, of his brother (Domitian), who had no share in the war. Not only was the conquest of Judaea stamped upon millions of the people’s coinage (the bronze) for twenty-six years, so that every person in the Empire was impressed with the importance of the event, but Titus gave still greater eclat to the Jews by erecting the Arch at Rome, to which reference has already been had. No wonder that Josephus, residing at Rome for thirty years after these events occurred, and at a period when some of the best historians of Rome were at work, was importuned to relate, for the benefit of the learned, the history and character of a people whose subjugation gave such honor to the world’s conquerors. The goddess Concord makes a striking appearance upon the coins of Titus.

This benign deity, together with Eirane (Pax) Victoria and others of the class, gave much pleasure to the people in the distribution of his money from hand to hand. One can imagine that in making a payment with money stamped with the attributions of Concordia, the parties would shake hands! Her symbols were two right hands joined, and a pomegranate. She was devoutly worshiped by the Romans. In her right hand appears the bowl, or sacred platter (patera), or sometimes the olive-branch; in her left, the Horn of Plenty. Several temples to Concord adorned and honored the Queen City; one built as early as the time of Furius Camillus to commemorate the reconciliation between the plebeians and patricians. The Senate held meetings in that temple until Livia repaired and her son Tiberius consecrated it, a.d. 9. In the time of Constantine aud Maxcntlus (a.d. 312) this temple was burnt, but again restored. Several other temples to Concord are known to have existed at Rome. Of Victoria (Victory), whoso attributions appear so frequently upon the coins of Titus, but little need be said. She was one of the deities of Rome, as well she might be, considering the warlike character of that people.

The Greeks called her NIKA, and it is a common ascription upon Byzantine coins, IS KS NIKA, in Greek characters. She was reckoned the sister of Strength and Valor, and one of the attendants of Jupiter. Sylla raised a temple to her in Rome and instituted festivals in her honor. She was represented with wings, crowned with laurel and holding the branch of a palm tree in her hand. A golden statue of this goddess, weighing 330 pounds, was presented to the Romans by Hiero, King of the Syracusans, about B.C. 400, and deposited in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitolinc Hill. The arms of the Roman soldiers, so often seen upon these coins, were of two classes, offensive and defensive.

The latter consisted of four pieces, viz. :

1. The Helmet (galea). This was of brass or iron, with projections at the base to protect the neck aud shoulders, with a chin-piece, covered with scales of brass.

2. The Cuirass (thorax vH pectorale). A hollow plate of brass one foot square, adapted to the form of the chest and fastened with thongs of leather, protected by metallic scales.

3. The Greave (ocrea). A species of boot, fortified with iron, worn on the right leg to protect the right foot, which was always set foremost in a fight with swords.

4. The Shield or Buckler (scutum) attached to the left arm, in form a demi-cylindor, four by two and a half feet, of iron plates covered with bull hide.

The offensive armor consisted of four pieces:

1. The Sword (gladiiim) a straight, broad blade for cut and thrust, fastened by girdle (tingnlum).

2. Javelin or Spear (hasta vel lancea). This was peculiar to the light infantry. It was a dart throe feet long, shod with iron and furnished with a thong (ausea).

3. Heavy dart (pilum), six or seven feet long. The point was barbed like a fishhook, and each soldier had two.

4. Pike. This was the weapon of the triarii, or veterans of the third rank. It was longer and more solid than the pilum.




Of twenty-seven coins, silver and bronze, of the Emperor Titus, from the illustrations on the fourth page. [The student will observe in these Readings:

First, that the size of a Coin does not always agree with the size of the picture.

Second, that the metal is distinguished by an abbreviation,—AV (aurum) standing for gold; AR (argentum) for silver; AE (am) for copper, bronze or brass, words indiscriminately used in Numismatics.

Third, that there are few punctuation points on coins, though sometimes introduced by engravers to facilitate Readings.

Fourth, that we do not reproduce the old forms of Greek letters here, but substitute modern type; and,

Fifth, that these Readings are prepared as well for the use of Learners as experts.]

No. 1, AE. To preserve the symmetry of the page the two faces of this cut are separated. Obverse. Laureate head of Titus to the right. Resemblance between him and his father, like that of their names, is very close. Beardless; bust undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII; (supplied) —Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potcstate Pater Patriae Consul 8—”nigh Priest; Exercising the Tribunitian Power; Father of the Country; Consul the eighth time.” This sets the date of the coin at a.d. 80. (An error of the engraver has made the IMP to read IMV.) The letters PP, in the time of Julius Caesar, were read Parens Patriae, but afterward Pater Patriae. Reverse. A palm tree, rich in foliage and fruit. “The daughter of Sion” at the base, on the right, weeping. A Roman soldier on the left, as if keeping guard. His right hand is supported by the hasta pura in his left is a parazoniam. His left foot is supported upon a low object; attitude graceful and commanding. Legend: IVDAEA CAPTA—” Judea Subdued.” S. C. for Senatus Consulto—”By decree of the Senate.” As we have already remarked, it proves how highly the Roman government valued the conquest of this little territory of Palestine, to see these ascriptions of “Judea Captured,” not only on the coins of Vespasian, under whose rule it was subdued, but also of Titus, who was the acting general in its conquest, and of Wb brother Domitian after him, who had no more to do with it than to take n part in the triumph decreed by the Senate to Vespasian. Yet for twenty-six years this device was occasionally stamped upon the current money of Rome.

No. 2, AR. The two faces of the cut are separated on the sheet to give proportion to the group. Obverse. Laureate head of Titus to the right; beardless; bust undraped. Inscription: “Titus Caesar Vespasian.” The reading of this passage is from right to left, as in some earlier coins. Reverse. The Emperor paludatcd, under guise of a horseman, galloping to the right, with a long spear vibrating in his right hand. Attitudes of steed and rider life-like. Legend: PONT MAX, for Pontifex Maximus—”High Priest.” The Emperors transferred to themselves this dignity of High Priest as perpetual; that is the P. M., unlike those of Consul and Tribunitian Power, were not renewable but ad vilam. Titus, wearing a general’s cloak, refers to his preparation for that expedition into Britain for which be offer sacred rites as High Priest.

No. 3, AR. Obverse. The laureate head of Titus to the right, as in preceding numbers. Inscription: “Titus Caesar Imperator Vespasian.” Reverse. The Emperor as High Priest, seated to the right; right hand supported by a stuff; in the left, an olive branch. Legend: PONTIF MAXIM, for Pontifex Maximus —”The High Priest.” See remarks upon the Reverse of No. 2.

No. 4, AE. A Greek Imperial. This coin may be studied in connection with the nine following, as they all have the same Obverse, with the head of Titus and inscription (Anglici): ” Titus Emperor Caesar Augustus Vespasian.” Reverse. A palm tree. Victory, on the left side, holds a shield against the body of the tree, as if about to inscribe upon it the Judaean conquest. Her left foot is supported by a globe. Legend: IOYAAIAE EAAOKYIA2— Judaea Devicta—” Judea Subdued.” This is the same group as upon the Reverse of No. 1, but less elaborate.

No. 5, AE. A Greek Imperial. Reverse. A Roman Trophy. Upon a strong post, or trunk of tree, are fixed the spoils of victory,— shields, helmet, body-armor, etc. At the foot, on the left, a miserable captive seated; his arms bound behind him; his attitude dejected in the extreme. On the right of the tree a shield. Legend as No. 4. These Judaean spoils arranged as a trophy show the avidity with which the Romans sought fame in the conquest of foreign peoples.

No. 6, AE. Reverse. A laurel wreath, within which is the Inscription (supplied): 4AAOYIEQN NEAnOAITON SAMAPEIA2—” Of the people of Neapolis Flavia, of Samaria.” The city of Neapolis, formerly Sichem, now Nablous, is in that beautiful locality between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, where the great drama of “The Reading the Law” was enacted by Moses, as in Joshua viii, 30-35. The name Flavia, a family name of Titus, was given to the city in his honor. The crown denotes the one presented him by the Samaritans after his conquest of Judaea, accomplished September, a.d. 70, in the destruction of Jerusalem. A coin with the same inscription was afterward struck by Domitian. The hereditary hatred entertained by the Jews against the Samaritans doubtless had something to do with these transactions.

No. 7, AE. Reverse. The figure of Sol (the sun) standing to the left, on the prow of a vessel; right hand supported by hasta pura; on left arm a long branch; on another branch that springs from the ground behind is perched a dove; in front of the figure an altar. Legend (mutilated): A2KAAO—”Of the people of Askalon.” This was struck in honor of Titus at the close of his Judaean war, a.d. 70, by the citizens of Askalon, then a great city, now a pile of ruins. The execution of this coin displays a low state of art.

No.8,AE. Reverse. The head of a female to the right; bust closely draped; her head decorated by an elephant’s proboscis. Legend: “To Flavia, by the Cyreneans.” This coin was struck in honor of Titus by the people of Cyrene, in Africa, at the close of the Jndaean war, a.d. 70. Many Jews were slain here, after the destruction of Jerusalem, by Catulus, the governor, as Josephus painfully relates. The elephant’s head is a common emblem upon coins struck in the various mints of northern Africa. Cyrene was the locality so famous for its production of laserpitium, or laserwort, formerly called Bilphium. Professor Wood defines it as ” the ancient name of some resinous plant;” order compositae, and names nine species, but says nothing of the qualities of the gum in medicine. So important was the trade in this plant to the interests of the Cyreneans that they placed a figure of it upon their coins. ‘-.’

No. 9, AE. Reverse. Victory gradient the left, with her usual attributes; wings, palm-branch in left hand, and crown of success in right. No legend.

No. 10, AE. Reverse. Victory, with the same attributions as in No. 9; gradient to the right. Legend (supplied): ETOY2 Kr BA2IAEY2 ArmiIIA2 — “Of the 23d year of King Agrippa.” This coin refers to the aid communicated by King Agrippa to Titus iu the Jewish war, of which Josephtis testifies. The wife of Agrippa, Berenice, had a liaison with Tims, and he would have married her but for the detestation of the Romans against the whole Jewish race. For some time she assumed publicly the part of a wife, aud excited such feeling against the prince that finally he repudiated her. The date 23d year refers of course to the reign of Agrippa.

No. 11, AE. Reverse. The goddess of Peace to the left, standing in graceful attitude; her stola reaches to her feet; on left arm is the caducaeus; in right hand are three heads of wheat. Legend: EIPHNH—”Peace.” After the triumphs of Vespasian, and his firm establishment upon the throne of the Empire, he decreed the erection of a temple to Peace. Joscphus affirms (Wars of the Jews, book vii, ch. 5,) that ” Vespasian resolved to build a temple to Peace, which he finished in so short a time, and in so glorious a manner, as was beyond all human expectation and opinion. For he, having won, by Providence, a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had formerly gained in his other exploits, had this temple adorned with pictures and statues. In this temple were collected and deposited all such rareties as men aforetime used to wander all over the habitable world to see one after another. He also laid up therein, as ensigns of his glory, those golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple.”

No. 12, AE. Reverse. Image of Diana, the huntress, goddess of the woods and Ihe chase, to the right; her bow is hanging upon her left arm; with her right haud she draws an arrow from the quiver. But her attributes of the stag, attendant nymph, etc., are absent. No legend.

No. 13, AE. Reverse. The laureate head of Titus to the right. Legend (Anglice): “Domitiau Caesar; of the Samians.” This coin was struck at Samos, a fertile island in the Aegean Sea, off the lower part of the coast of Ionia. The temple and worship of Juno contributed much to its fame and affluence, and the attributes of Juno are often seen upon Samian coins. Pythagoras was born here about B.C. 550. The Samiaus placed the brother of Titus upon this coin, thinking to please them both.

No. 14, AE. The Obverse has the head of Titus, with the inscription: “The Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasian Augustus, the High Priest; Exercising the Tribunitian Power; Consul the 8th time.” This gives the date a.d. 80. Reverse. A Meta (Metula) or Boundary Post, such as was used in public games, commonly in form of a cone or pyramid, as the one here figured. The pyramidal column at each end of the circus at Rome, around which the charioteers turned seven times, was particularly known by the term Meta. There are many of these yet standing in Rome, constructed at various periods. Upon a medal of Pope Innocent X (1644) is a Meta. The letters S. C. are for Senatus Consulto—” By Decree of the Senate,” as often explained in our series.

No. 15, AE. The Obverse has the head of Titus, with the Inscription: “Titus Caesar, Emperor, Exercising the Tribunitian Power.” Reverse. The symbol of Antioch in Syria, viz., a female head to the right, wearing a turreted crown; bust draped; hair elaborately dressed in ringlets; ANTIOXIA—” Antioch.”

No. 16, AE. This may be studied in connection with the two succeeding. The Obverse of each has the head of Julia to the right, with the Inscription, “Julia Augusta, daughter of the Emperor Titus Augustus.” Reverse. The goddess Vesta seated to the left, her left foot upon a low block; draped to the feet; in left hand a long, armed spear; in right, a gloriola. Legend: VESTA. S. C. is for Senatus Consulto — “By Decree of the Senate.” The fate of this unhappy woman is sad enough. She married Flavins Sabinus, nephew of her grandfather, Vespasian, lived in criminal intercourse with her uncle, Domitian, and died of abortion produced by the orders of that brutal and savage prince.

No. 17, AE. Reverse. The goddess Ceres, standing, in graceful attitude, to the left; left hand supported by hasta pura; in right, a parcel of wheat ears. Legend: CERES AVGVSTA—”The Augustan Ceres ” (or “Ceres, tutelar of the Empress.”.) S. C. for Senatus Consulto—”By Decree of the Senate.” All the hopes bread among the people whose coins we arc describing, were associated with Ceres, deity of the cornfield. The island of Sicily was styled- by the ancients “The abode of Ceres,” for its extraordinary abundance of grain.

No. 18, AE. Reverse. The goddess of Concord seated to the left; her left foot raised upon a low block; draped to the feet; on left arm an overflowing cornucopiae; right hand holds out the patera. Legend: Concordia Augusta—”Concord, the Empress.” S. C, for Senatus Consulto—”By Decree of the Senate.”

No. 19, AE. A Hreek Imperial. This may be studied in connection with the three following, all struck in Egypt. The Obverse of each has the head of Titus, with the Inscription, “Of Titus, Emperor, Caesar, Augustus, Vespasian.” Reverse. A Harpy. These fabulous birds were rapacious monsters, half birds, half women, derived from a Greek word, ” the Snatchers,” ” the Swift Robbers,” etc. In Homer they seem only to be personified storm-winds. Their names were Aello and Oeypete, sisters of Isis. They had heads of maidens; long claws on their hands; their faces pale with hunger. Virgil describes them powerfully in the Aeneid. The Greek letters Ar are for “Of the third year” of Titus, viz. a.d. 81.

No. 20, AE. Reverse. The goddess Isis, the most famed of Egyptian deities. Before her head is the Lotus, mystic emblem of the Nile. The Greek letters are read: AYKABANT02 4—”Of the fourth year.” The Egyptians exhibited peculiar respect to Titus. It was in their city of Alexandria that his father was first nominated Emperor of Rome by the legions, July 1, a.d. 69.

No. 21, AE. Reverse. The head of Serapis, prime god of Egypt, whose worship extended throughout the Roman Empire. Abounding hair; bushy beard; venerable features. On his head a modius (grain measure), an Egyptian emblem of fertility. The Greek letters are read “Of the year 6,” but as the reign of Titus extended only with the third year, the figures must refer to some other epoch.

No. 22, AE. Reverse. As No. 21, Serapis standing to the left; right hand rests upon a long, unarmed spear; undraped to the hips; upon his head the modius; right haud points to the Clava (club) of Hercules below. This club is also attached to the legend of Perseus. He was first attacked by Periphetes, in Epidauria, whose weapon was a club, and who, on that account, was called Corynetes, or the club-bearer. He engaged with him and slew him. Delighted with this club, he took it for his weapon, and used it as Hercules did the lion’s skin.

No. 23, AE. This may be studied in connection with Nos. 24 and 26. The Obverse of each is No. 24. Reverse. A Triumph scene. Titus, with his father, Vespasian, enjoyed a memorable triumph after the destruction of Jerusalem. Titus driving a quadriga (four-horse chariot) to the right. No Legend. S. C. is for Senatus Consulto —”By Decree of the Senate.”

No. 24, AE. Obverse. Laureate head of Titus to the right; beardless; bust undraped. Inscription (abbreviated): T CAES IMP PONT TR P COS II CENS; (supplied) — Titus Caesar; Imperator; Pontifcx; Tribunitia Potestate; Consul 2; Censor—”Titus Caesar: Emperor; Priest; Exercising Tribunitian Power; Consul the second time; Censor. As early as B.C. 441, two magistrates, entitled Censores, were appointed for taking an account of the number of the people and the value of their fortunes (censm agendo). At first the office was conferred for five years, afterward for only one year and a half; but no one could be elected a second lime. They had all the ensigns of Consuls except the lictors. The last Censors were Paulus and Plancus, under Augustus, when the office was abolished, and the chief duties of it were exercised by the ‘ Emperors themselves or by other magistrates. One would think, seeing how willing the Emperors were to bear the honors of the Tribunate, the Consulate, etc., that this office of Censor would have had greater attractions. Not only were the duties weighty, such as taking the national census, reforming the Senate, inspecting the morals and estimating the fortunes of the people; but the honors and privileges of the post, like those of the other offices men- *tioned, were very great. Iu the coins we find the office indicated by the terms CENS, CENS II, CENS PERP, etc.

No. 25, AE. Reverse. Victory gradient, to the right, with her accustomed attributes, viz., palm-brauch on left arm; wreath extended in her right. Beneath her is a vessel’s prow, denoting that the victory was a naval one. Legend: VICTORIA NAVALIS —”Naval Victory.” This victory upon the waters of the Sea of Galilee is fully described by Josephtis.

No. 26, AE. Reverse. The same group as upon the Reverse of No. 1, with slight differences.

No. 27, AE. A Greek Imperial. Obverse. The head of Julia, daughter of the Emperor Titus, to the right; hair elaborately worked; bust modestly draped. Inscription: IOYAIA 5EBA5TH—”Julia Augusta.” Reverse. A Tripod (tripus), or three-footed seat.

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